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How does animal and poultry excrement ferment do organic fertilizer? Animal husbandry has developed rapidly in rural areas of China, and its output value has accounted for 34% of the total agricultural output. With the increase of the number of livestock and poultry, the production of livestock and poultry manure has also increased rapidly.

Most organic fertilizer products are only composted and fermented for 15 to 20 days, so such products can only meet harmless standards. The fermentation process of high-quality organic fertilizer compost generally takes 45 to 60 days. This is because in the early heating and high temperature stage of composting will kill plant pathogenic pathogens, eggs, miscellaneous grass seeds and other harmful microorganisms, but the main role of microorganisms in this process is metabolism and reproduction, and only a small number of metabolites are produced, and these metabolites are unstable and not easy to be absorbed by plants.

In the later cooling period, microorganisms will carry out the humification of organic matter, and in this process, a large number of metabolites beneficial to plant growth and absorption, this process takes 45 to 60 days. Through this process of composting can achieve three purposes, one is harmless; Second, humus; Third, a large number of microbial metabolites such as various antibiotics, protein substances.

1. Classification of compost

Crop stem, green manure, weeds and other plant material and soil, human excrement, garbage and other mixed pile, decomposition by good air microbial fertilizer. It can provide nutrient elements and improve soil properties, especially for sandy soil, clay soil and saline soil.

Composting method is divided into high temperature composting and ordinary composting according to different raw materials. High temperature compost is made of plant material with high fiber content as the main raw material. It is piled and fermented under aeration condition, which generates a lot of heat. The temperature in the pile is high (50-60℃), so it is fast to decompose, fast to compost and has high nutrient content.

The high-temperature fermentation process kills bacteria, eggs and weed seeds. Ordinary compost is usually mixed with more soil, low fermentation temperature, slow decaying process and long stacking time. The chemical composition of nutrients was changed, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen was decreased, and the mineral nutrients that could be directly absorbed by plants were increased and humus was formed

high temperature composting method, in the leeward to the sun near the water source, according to the proportion of straw, excrement and urine, animal and plant residues, sludge, etc., add some dung containing high temperature decomposition bacteria (such as horse manure or its leaching liquid) or has been fermented compost for accumulation. The temperature control in the compost is about 60℃, and the time lasts about half a month, which can fully kill pathogens, parasitic eggs and weed seeds in the compost. The mortality rate of ascaris eggs is 95%-100%, and there are no live maggots, pupae or newly emerged adult flies around the manure piles.

  • general composting method, in the anaerobic conditions of stacking, generally using half pit type composting, both dig a rectangular pit, straw, excrement, animal and plant nitrogen sources and soil and other organic fertilizer layer upon layer, pile into steamed bun shape, pressed tightly sealed, 1 months later, will decompose poor on the bottom, still sealed with soil. 1-2 months in summer and autumn, 3-4 months in winter can be ripe. This compost method is convenient for composting, but it takes a long time and the degree of maturity is uneven.

2. Compost ripe good conditions

1) Moisture. Maintaining proper water content is the first condition to promote microbial activity and compost fermentation. Generally, 60%-75% of the maximum water holding capacity of compost material is appropriate.

2) Ventilation. Keep the proper air in the reactor, which is conducive to the reproduction and activity of aerophile microorganisms, and promote the decomposition of organic matter. When composting at high temperature, attention should be paid to the appropriate tightness of the accumulation to facilitate ventilation.

3) keep neutral or slightly alkaline environment. Lime or calcareous soil can be added to neutralize acidity and promote microbial reproduction and activity.

4) Carbon and nitrogen ratio. The c/N ratio of normal decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms is 25∶1. The c/N ratio of legume green fertilizer was 15-25∶1, that of weeds 25-45∶1 and that of grass stalk 60-100∶1. Therefore, according to the types of compost materials, appropriate amount of substances with high nitrogen content are added to reduce the ratio of carbon to nitrogen and promote microbial activities. Some bases purchase chicken manure, pig manure and other homemade organic fertilizer, but livestock and poultry manure can not be used directly, must be fermented and decomposed before safe use. Unripe organic fertilizer contains certain pathogenic bacteria, viruses, nematodes, root mites, weed seeds, etc., leading to the occurrence of plant diseases and weeds in the field; At the same time, undecomposed organic fertilizer produces harmful gases in the process of decomposition, which is easy to cause root burning, soil water shortage and other hazards.

3. Stacking materials

It is mainly composed of main materials, auxiliary materials, starter or quicklime. Main material for cattle, sheep, pigs, rabbit excrement, accounting for about 80%; Excipients are various crop straw, fungus residue, dead leaves and sawdust, accounting for about 20%; Other: starter (conditional can be purchased, no can also)

4. Stacking period

During spring, summer and autumn, the outdoor temperature should be kept above 20℃ for stacking.

5. Site selection

Choose sunny, slightly higher terrain, favorable drainage, convenient transportation of open land.

6. Stacking method

Process in the order. then, accessories such as mixing, modulation (moisture control at around 60%), building pile (2 m wide and 1 m tall, unlimited length), sealing pile (every 1 to 2 meters in pile plugged vent or small the maize straw, provide oxygen channels for microorganisms, with plastic sheeting block), double pile (when the temperature reaches 60 ℃ in pile, pile, adding water).

7. The degree of maturity inspection

Organic fertilizer must be fully decayed. The standard for the completion of maturity: 1. The heap temperature drops below 40℃ and remains unchanged. 2, compost humidity below 35%, no raw material odor, a little ammonia smell. 3, mature compost is dark brown, juice is light brown or colorless. 4. White mycelium is produced in the heap.

8. matters needing attention

  • organic fertilizer should be used with water soluble fertilizer.

Organic fertilizer decomposition is slow, fertilizer effect is late, so when fertilization, we must pay attention to the application of water soluble fertilizer, so as to complement each other, reasonable collocation.

  • organic fertilizer to fully mature.

The majority of organic fertilizer often contains germ, insect egg and weed seed, because this is in the organic fertilizer after composting ferment join the insecticide such as phoxim, fungicide reapply. However, the phenomenon of burning seeds and seedlings can occur when the faeces are not directly applied to the soil. At the same time, organic fertilizer contains a large number of eggs, bacteria, not mature will cause serious damage to crops.

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